Spatial effects of infiltrating T cells on neighbouring cancer cells and prognosis in stage III CRC patients

Mohammadreza Azimi, Sanghee Cho, Emir Bozkurt, Elizabeth McDonough, Batuhan Kisakol, Anna Matveeva, Manuela Salvucci, Andreas Lindner, Heiko Dussmann, Jinru Shia, Simon McDade, Daniel B Longley, Fiona Ginty, Jochen H M Prehn

Research output: Working paper

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Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequently occurring cancers, but prognostic biomarkers identifying patients at risk of recurrence are still lacking. In this study, we aimed to investigate in more detail the spatial relationship between intratumoural T cells, cancer cells, and cancer cell hallmarks, as prognostic biomarkers in stage III colorectal cancer patients. We conducted multiplexed imaging of 56 protein markers at single cell resolution on resected fixed tissue from stage III CRC patients who received adjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Images underwent segmentation for tumour, stroma and immune cells, and cancer cell 'state' protein marker expression was quantified at a cellular level. We developed a Python package for estimation of spatial proximity, nearest neighbour analysis focusing on cancer cell - T cell interactions at single-cell level. In our discovery cohort (MSK), we processed 462 core samples (total number of cells: 1,669,228) from 221 adjuvant 5FU-treated stage III patients. The validation cohort (HV) consisted of 272 samples (total number of cells: 853,398) from 98 stage III CRC patients. While there were trends for an association between percentage of cytotoxic T cells (across the whole cancer core), it did not reach significance (Discovery cohort: p = 0.07, Validation cohort: p = 0.19). We next benchmarked our region-based nearest neighbourhood approach to determine the spatial relationships between cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells and cancer cell clusters. In the both cohorts, we found that lower distance between cytotoxic T cells, T helper cells and cancer cells was significantly associated with increased disease-free survival. An unsupervised trained model that clustered tumours based on the median distance between immune cells and cancer cells, as well as protein expression profiles, successfully classified patients into low-risk and high-risk groups (Discovery cohort: p = 0.01, Validation cohort: p = 0.003).

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages34
Publication statusPublished - 01 Feb 2024

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