Spatially-resolved mapping of history-dependent coupled electrochemical and electronical behaviors of electroresistive NiO

Issei Sugiyama, Yunseok Kim, Stephen Jesse, Evgheni Strelcov, Amit Kumar, Alexander Tselev, Ehasan Kabiri Rahani, Vivek B. Shenoy, Takahisa Yamamoto, Naoya Shibata, Yuichi Ikuhara, Sergei V. Kalinin

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Bias-induced oxygen ion dynamics underpins a broad spectrum of electroresistive and memristive phenomena in oxide materials. Although widely studied by device-level and local voltage-current spectroscopies, the relationship between electroresistive phenomena, local electrochemical behaviors, and microstructures remains elusive. Here, the interplay between history-dependent electronic transport and electrochemical phenomena in a NiO single crystalline thin film with a number of well-defined defect types is explored on the nanometer scale using an atomic force microscopy-based technique. A variety of electrochemically-active regions were observed and spatially resolved relationship between the electronic and electrochemical phenomena was revealed. The regions with pronounced electroresistive activity were further correlated with defects identified by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Using fully coupled mechanical-electrochemical modeling, we illustrate that the spatial distribution of strain plays an important role in electrochemical and electroresistive phenomena. These studies illustrate an approach for simultaneous mapping of the electronic and ionic transport on a single defective structure level such as dislocations or interfaces, and pave the way for creating libraries of defect-specific electrochemical responses.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6725
JournalNature Scientific Reports
Publication statusPublished - 22 Oct 2014

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