Stability studies of the metabolites of nitrofuran antibiotics during storage and cooking

K. M. Cooper, D. G. Kennedy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)


Nitrofuran antibiotics cannot be used in food production within the European Union because of their potential health risks to consumers. The recent discovery of their widespread use in global food industries and the finding of semicarbazide in baby food as a result of packaging contamination have focused attention on the toxicity and stability of these drugs and their metabolites. The stability of the nitrofuran marker residues 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidone (AMOZ), 1-aminohydantoin (AHD) and semicarbazide (SEM) were tested. Muscle and liver of nitrofuran treated pigs were cooked by frying, grilling, roasting and microwaving. Between 67 and 100% of the residues remained after cooking, demonstrating that these metabolites are largely resistant to conventional cooking techniques and will continue to pose a health risk. The concentration of metabolites in pig muscle and liver did not drop significantly during 8 months of storage at -20 degrees C. Metabolite stock and working standard solutions in methanol were also stable for 10 months at 4 degrees C. Only a 10 ng ml(-1) solution of SEM showed a small drop in concentration over this extended storage period.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)935-942
Number of pages8
JournalFood Additives and Contaminants
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Toxicology


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