Stacking Battery Energy Storage Revenues in Future Distribution Networks

Ahmed A.Raouf Mohamed*, Robert J. Best, Xueqin Liu, D John Morrow, Jonathan Pollock, Andrew Cupples

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
248 Downloads (Pure)


Distribution system operators are attracted to battery energy storage systems (BESS) as a smart option to support the distribution network. However, due to its high capital cost, BESS profitability is dependent on the participation in multiple services to stack revenues and rationalize their existence. Yet, revenue stacking is location-dependent based on the available services and regulations. In this paper, specific revenue stacking frameworks are proposed for BESS installed in modern distribution networks that consider the conflicts and synergies that may occur from the involvement in multiple services in practice. A simple yet effective sizing formulation is introduced to find the BESS system size based on the primary service which is to solve the distribution network violations. BESS scheduling is simulated in accordance with the proposed frameworks to maximize the stackable profits for a case study of Northern Ireland. The BESS profitability is investigated through cost-benefit analyses of different technologies for the sole and stacked services. The results show that revenue stacking can boost the annual revenues by 129% with a payback period of 8 years on average. The presented insights are useful for network operators and energy investors in understanding and assessing the profitability of different BESS technologies for various applications.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)35026 - 35039
JournalIEEE Access
Early online date28 Mar 2022
Publication statusPublished - 05 Apr 2022


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