Starch-grafted polyacrylic acid copolymer with acrylamide: an advanced adsorbent for Victoria green B dye removal and environmental remediation

Iffat Ayesha Khan, Fazal Haq, Ahmed I. Osman*, Mehwish Kiran, Mehreen Hashim, Sahid Mehmood, Muhammad Wajid Ullah

*Corresponding author for this work

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A new adsorbent, starch grafted polyacrylic acid copolymer with polyacrylamide (SG@AA-co-AM), was synthesized using free radical polymerization techniques. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle size distribution (PSD), and fluorescent electron microscopy (FEM) were employed to elucidate the structure, crystalline nature, thermal stability, and surface morphology of SG@AA-co-AM. SG@AA-co-AM was utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of Victoria green B (VGB) dye from wastewater. SG@AA-co-AM exhibited a removal percentage (% R) of 97.6% towards VGB under optimized conditions: a contact time of 30 min, temperature of 25 °C, adsorbent dose of 20 mg, pH of 8, concentration of dye solution of 20 ppm, and volume of dye solution of 30 mL. The point of zero charge (PZC) for SG@AA-co-AM was determined to be 5.2. Nonlinear pseudo-second-order (PSO) and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models best fitted to the experimental data, with regression coefficients (R2) of 0.95 and 0.99, respectively. The results confirmed the chemi-sorption and monolayer adsorption of VGB onto SG@AA-co-AM. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption of VGB onto SG@AA-co-AM is endothermic and spontaneous. Furthermore, the regeneration experiment showed a decline of 3.9% after five cycles, confirming the economical and reusable nature of SG@AA-co-AM.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages24
JournalJournal of Polymers and the Environment
Early online date13 Apr 2024
Publication statusEarly online date - 13 Apr 2024


  • Adsorption
  • Bio-based adsorbent
  • Isotherms
  • Re-generation
  • Thermodynamics
  • Victoria Green B

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry


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