STARD 2015: an updated list of essential items for reporting diagnostic accuracy studies

Patrick M Bossuyt, Johannes B Reitsma, David E Bruns, Constantine A Gatsonis, Paul P Glasziou, Les Irwig, Jeroen G Lijmer, David Moher, Drummond Rennie, Henrica C W de Vet, Herbert Y Kressel, Nader Rifai, Robert M Golub, Douglas G Altman, Lotty Hooft, Daniël A Korevaar, Jérémie F Cohen, STARD Group, Augusto Azuara-Blanco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1095 Citations (Scopus)
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Incomplete reporting has been identified as a major source of avoidable waste in biomedical research.
Essential information is often not provided in study reports, impeding the identification, critical
appraisal, and replication of studies. To improve the quality of reporting of diagnostic accuracy
studies, the Standards for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) statement was developed. Here
we present STARD 2015, an updated list of 30 essential items that should be included in every
report of a diagnostic accuracy study. This update incorporates recent evidence about sources of
bias and variability in diagnostic accuracy and is intended to facilitate the use of STARD. As such,
STARD 2015 may help to improve completeness and transparency in reporting of diagnostic accuracy
Original languageEnglish
Article numberh5527
Number of pages9
Early online date28 Oct 2015
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • Bias (Epidemiology)
  • Data Accuracy
  • Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures
  • Disclosure
  • Information Dissemination
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Reference Standards
  • Research Design
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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