We establish a generalisation of the fundamental state convertibility theorem in quantum information to the context of bipartite quantum systems modelled by commuting semi-finite von Neumann algebras. Namely, we establish a generalisation to this setting of Nielsen’s theorem on the convertibility of quantum states under local operations and classical communication (LOCC) schemes. Along the way, we introduce an appropriate generalisation of LOCC operations and connect the resulting notion of approximate convertibility to the theory of singular numbers and majorisation in von Neumann algebras. As an application of our result in the setting of II1II1-factors, we show that the entropy of the singular value distribution relative to the unique tracial state is an entanglement monotone in the sense of Vidal, thus yielding a new way to quantify entanglement in that context. Building on previous work in the infinite-dimensional setting, we show that trace vectors play the role of maximally entangled states for general II1II1-factors. Examples are drawn from infinite spin chains, quasi-free representations of the CAR, and discretised versions of the CCR.
Crann, J., Kribs, D. W., Levene, R., & Todorov, I. (2020). State Convertibility in the von Neumann Algebra Framework. Communications in Mathematical Physics, 378, 1123–1156. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00220-020-03803-3