Stir bar sorptive extraction of diclofenac from liquid formulations: A proof of concept study

Prashant Kole, Jeffrey Millership, James McElnay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


A new stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) technique coupled with HPLC-UV method for quantification of diclofenac in pharmaceutical formulations has been developed and validated as a proof of concept study. Commercially available polydimethylsiloxane stir bars (Twister (TM)) were used for method development and SBSE extraction (pH, phase ratio, stirring speed, temperature, ionic strength and time) and liquid desorption (solvents, desorption method, stirring time etc) procedures were optimised. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines and was successfully applied for the estimation of diclofenac from three liquid formulations viz. Voltarol (R) Optha single dose eye drops, Voltarol (R) Ophtha multidose eye drops and Voltarol (R) ampoules. The developed method was found to be linear (r=0.9999) over 100-2000 ng/ml concentration range with acceptable accuracy and precision (tested over three QC concentrations). The SBSE extraction recovery of the diclofenac was found to be 70% and the LOD and LOQ of the validated method were found to be 16.06 and 48.68 ng/ml, respectively. Furthermore, a forced degradation study of a diclofenac formulation leading to the formation of structurally similar cyclic impurity (indolinone) was carried out. The developed extraction method showed comparable results to that of the reference method, i.e. method was capable of selectively extracting the indolinone and diclofenac from the liquid matrix. Data on inter and intra stir bar accuracy and precision further confirmed robustness of the method, supporting the multiple re-use of the stir bars. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)701-710
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 25 Mar 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Drug Discovery
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Spectroscopy
  • Clinical Biochemistry

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