A robust multiscale scheme referred to as micro–macro method has been developed for the prediction of localized damage in fiber reinforced composites and implemented in a finite element framework. The micro–macro method is based on the idea of partial homogenization of a structure. In this method, the microstructural details are included in a small region of interest in the structure and the rest is modeled as a homogeneous continuum. The solution to the microstructural fields is then obtained on solving the two different domains, simultaneously. This method accurately predicts local stress fields in stress concentration regions and is computationally efficient as compared with the solution of a full scale microstructural model. This scheme has been applied to obtain localized damage at high and low stress zones of a V-notched rail shear specimen. The prominent damage mechanisms under shear loading, namely, matrix cracking and interfacial debonding, have been modeled using Mohr–Coulomb plasticity and traction separation law, respectively. The average stress at the notch has been found to be 44% higher than the average stresses away from the notch for a 90 N shear load. This stress rise is a direct outcome of the geometry of the notch.
Soni, G., Gupta, S., Singh, R., Mitra, M., Yan, W., & Falzon, B. (2014). Study of localized damage in composite laminates using micro-macro approach. Composite Structures, 113, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2014.02.016