OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the utility of tubular (urinary/plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL] and urinary kidney injury molecule 1 [KIM-1]) and glomerular (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]) biomarkers in predicting preeclampsia (PE) in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who were free of microalbuminuria and hypertension at the first trimester.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a prospective study of T1DM pregnancy. Maternal urinary and plasma NGAL urinary KIM-1 (ELISA of frozen samples), and eGFR (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation) were determined at three study visits (V1: 12.4 ± 1.8; V2: 21.7 ± 1.4; V3: 31.4 ± 1.5 weeks' gestation [mean ± SD]) in 23 women with T1DM with subsequent PE (DM+PE+), 24 who remained normotensive (DM+PE-), and, for reference, in 19 normotensive pregnant women without diabetes (DM-). The groups with diabetes were matched for age, diabetes duration, HbA1c, and parity. All subjects were normotensive and free of microalbuminuria or albuminuria at V1. All study visits preceded the onset of PE.
RESULTS: Urinary creatinine-corrected NGAL (uNGALcc, ng/mg) was significantly elevated at V1 in DM+PE+ versus DM+PE- women (P = 0.01); this remained significant after exclusion of leukocyte-positive samples (5 DM+PE+ and 2 DM+PE-) (P = 0.02). Accounting for BMI, HbA1c, and total daily insulin dose, a doubling of uNGALcc at V1 conferred a sevenfold increase in risk for PE (P = 0.026). In contrast, neither plasma NGAL nor urinary KIM-1 predicted PE. Also at V1, eGFR was elevated in DM+PE+ versus DM+PE- (P = 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS: Early tubular and glomerular dysfunction may predict PE in first trimester women with T1DM, even if free of microalbuminuria. These data suggest that subclinical renal tubular and glomerular injury, if present early in pregnancy, may predispose women with T1DM to PE.
- Journal Article