A series of Hunig's base tethered ammonium ionic liquids have been used to catalyse the Knoevenagel condensation of aldehydes/ketones with malononitrile and ethyl cyanoacetate. The reactions were performed under homogeneous and under biphasic, liquid-liquid and liquid-silica supported ionic liquid, conditions with the biphasic systems employing cyclohexene as the second phase. By increasing the distance between the ammonium head group and Hunig's base the activity of the catalyst was found to increase. Higher activity, in general, was found under homogeneous reaction conditions; however, the recyclability of the catalyst was improved by supporting the BIL under biphasic conditions. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Process Chemistry and Technology
- Materials Science (miscellaneous)