Sustainable concrete: design and testing

Jeanette Visser, Sandra Couto , Anoop Gupta , Iñigo Larraza Alvarez , Valle Chozas Ligero , Tiago Sotto Mayor, Raffaele Vinai, Penny Pipilikaki , Alessandro Largo, Agnese Attanasio, Mike Chao-Lung Huang, Marios Soutsos

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    4 Citations (Scopus)


    Producing concrete with secondary raw materials is an excellent way to contribute to a moresustainable world, provided that this concrete has at least the same performance during itsservice life as concrete made with the primary raw materials it replaces. Secondary rawmaterials for Light Weight (LW) aggregates (rigid polyurethane foams, shredded tire rubberand mixed plastic scraps) have been combined with secondary raw materials for the binder(fly ash, slag and perlite tailings) making sustainable concretes that were investigated fortheir suitability as LW, highly insulating concrete for four different types of applications.Compliance to desired engineering properties (workability, setting time) was not alwaysfeasible: it was mostly the low workability of the mixtures that limited their application.Contrary to well established cements, steering the workability by adding water was not anoption for these binders that rely on alkali-activation. Eight successful mixtures have beentested further. The results have shown that it is possible to produce a non-structuralsustainable concrete with good mechanical and thermal insulation properties.Design of concrete made with novel materials is currently not feasible without extensiveexperimentation as no design rules exist other than empirically derived rules based ontraditional materials. As a radical different approach, a flexible concrete mix design has beendeveloped with which the concrete can be modelled in the fresh and hardened state. Thenumerical concrete mix design method proves a promising tool in designing concrete forperformance demands such as elasticity parameters and thermal conductivity
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)59-92
    Issue number1/2
    Publication statusPublished - 2015


    • numerical concrete design
    • performance
    • waste binder
    • waste aggregate
    • workability
    • mechanical properties
    • thermal conductivity

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  • Cite this

    Visser, J., Couto , S., Gupta , A., Larraza Alvarez , I., Chozas Ligero , V., Sotto Mayor, T., Vinai, R., Pipilikaki , P., Largo, A., Attanasio, A., Chao-Lung Huang, M., & Soutsos, M. (2015). Sustainable concrete: design and testing. Heron, 60(1/2), 59-92.