Antiretroviral entry inhibitors are now being considered as vaginally administered microbicide candidates for prevention of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Previous studies testing the entry inhibitors maraviroc and CMPD167 in aqueous gel formulations showed efficacy in the macaque challenge model, although protection was highly dependent on the time period between initial gel application and subsequent challenge. In this paper, we describe the sustained release of the entry inhibitors maraviroc and CMPD167 from matrix-type silicone elastomer vaginal rings both in vitro and in vivo. Both inhibitors were released continuously over 28 days from rings in vitro, at rates of 100-2500 µg/day. In 28-day pharmacokinetic studies in rhesus macaques, the compounds were measured in the vaginal fluid and vaginal tissue; steady state fluid concentrations were ~106 fold greater than IC50 values for SHIV-162P3 inhibition in macaque lymphocytes in vitro. Plasma concentrations for both compounds were very low. Pretreatment of macaques with Depo-Provera® (DP), as commonly used in macaque challenge studies, was shown to significantly modify the bio-distribution of the inhibitors, but not the overall amount released. Vaginal fluid and tissue concentrations were significantly decreased while plasma levels increased with DP pretreatment. These observations have implications for designing macaque challenge experiments, and also for ring performance during the human female menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
- Pharmacology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases