Synthesis of the unsym. Homalium alkaloids hopromine (I, R = H, R1 = pentyl), hoprominol (I, R = OH, R1 = pentyl) and hopramalinol (I, R = OH, R1 = Ph), in diastereoisomeric mixt. form, is reported. The component eight-membered azalactams are first prepd. N-(3-halogenopropyl)-4-pentyl- and 4-heptylazetidin-2-ones are aminated and ring expanded in liq. ammonia to give, after reductive methylation, the corresponding 4-alkyl-5-methyl-1,5-diazacyclooctan-2-ones. Synthesis of the 4-(2-hydroxyheptyl)-5-methyl-1,5-diazacyclooctan-2-one required for hoprominol and hopromalinol is carried out via 4-allyl ?-lactam ring expansion to the eight-membered 4-allylazalactam, followed by methylation, epoxidn. and epoxide opening with lithium dibutylcuprate. A similar epoxidn.-cuprate sequence was carried out on the epoxypropyl ?-lactam, as its N-tert-butyldimethylsilyl deriv., and led to a convenient copper-catalyzed N- to O-migration of the protection; this migration is examd. Alkylation gave O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-protected N-(3-chloropropyl)-4-(2-hydroxyheptyl)azetidin-2-one which could be aminated and transamidated in excellent yield, to give, after methylation, a superior sequence to the required eight-membered hydroxy azalactam. Although satisfactory for attachment of the first azalactam unit, a dibromobutane coupling system proved unreactive for the second. Couplings with unmethylated, methylated, and benzyloxycabronyl-protected azalactams were examd. using (E)-1,4-dibromobutene and (Z)-1,4-dichlorobutene as the bridging unit. Employing the latter, coupling the first N-methylated azalactam with potassium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide as the base, and then the second with bis(trimethylsilyl)amide-sodium hydride as the base system, provided a satisfactory synthetic outcome. Hydrogenation under acidic conditions gave the unsym. structures hopromine, hoprominol and hopromalinol, as well as the more simple and sym. alkaloid, homaline.
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||Journal of the Chemical Society - Perkin Transactions 1|
|Publication status||Published - 1993|