The properties of materials under extreme conditions of pressure and density are of key interest to a number of fields, including planetary geophysics, materials science, and inertial confinement fusion. In geophysics, the equations of state of planetary materials, such as hydrogen and iron, under ultrahigh pressure and density provide a better understanding of their formation and interior structure [Celliers et al., “Insulator-metal transition in dense fluid deuterium,” Science 361, 677-682 (2018) and Smith et al., “Equation of state of iron under core conditions of large rocky exoplanets,” Nat. Astron. 2, 591-682 (2018)]. The processes of interest in these fields occur under conditions of high pressure (100 GPa-100 TPa), high temperature (>3000 K), and sometimes at high strain rates (>103 s−1) depending on the process. With the advent of high energy density (HED) facilities, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF), Linear Coherent Light Source, Omega Laser Facility, and Z, these conditions are reachable and numerous experimental platforms have been developed. To measure compression under ultrahigh pressure, stepped targets are ramp-compressed and the sound velocity, measured by the velocity interferometer system for any reflector diagnostic technique, from which the stress-density of relevant materials is deduced at pulsed power [M. D. Knudson and M. P. Desjarlais, “High-precision shock wave measurements of deuterium: Evaluation of exchange-correlation functionals at the molecular-to-atomic transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 035501 (2017)] and laser [Smith et al., “Equation of state of iron under core conditions of large rocky exoplanets,” Nat. Astron. 2, 591-682 (2018)] facilities. To measure strength under high pressure and strain rates, experimenters measure the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities using face-on radiography [Park et al., “Grain-size-independent plastic flow at ultrahigh pressures and strain rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 065502 (2015)]. The crystal structure of materials under high compression is measured by dynamic x-ray diffraction [Rygg et al., “X-ray diffraction at the national ignition facility,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 91, 043902 (2020) and McBride et al., “Phase transition lowering in dynamically compressed silicon,” Nat. Phys. 15, 89-94 (2019)]. Medium range material temperatures (a few thousand degrees) can be measured by extended x-ray absorption fine structure techniques, Yaakobi et al., “Extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements of laser-shocked V and Ti and crystal phase transformation in Ti,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 095504 (2004) and Ping et al., “Solid iron compressed up to 560 GPa,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 065501 (2013), whereas more extreme temperatures are measured using x-ray Thomson scattering or pyrometry. This manuscript will review the scientific motivations, experimental techniques, and the regimes that can be probed for the study of materials under extreme HED conditions.
|Journal||Physics of Plasmas|
|Publication status||Published - 02 Jun 2021|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344. E.E.M. acknowledges that her work was supported by the Department of Energy, Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515 and as part of the Panofsky Fellowship awarded to E.E.M.
© 2021 Author(s).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Condensed Matter Physics