Bioenergy derived from biomass provides a promising energy alternative and can reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions generated from fossil fuels. Biomass-based thermochemical conversion technologies have been acknowledged as apt options to convert bioresources into bioenergy; this bioenergy includes electricity, heat, and fuels/chemicals in solid, liquid, and gaseous phases. In this review, the techno-economic and life cycle assessment of these technologies (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction, carbonization, and co-firing) are summarized. Specific indicators (production costs in a techno-economic analysis, functional units and environmental impacts in a life cycle analysis) for different technologies were compared. Finally, gaps in research and future trends in biomass thermochemical conversion were identified. This review could be used to guide future research related to economic and environmental benefits of bioenergy.