Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is an intracellular bacterium that overcomes host immune system barriers for successful infection. The bacterium colonizes the proximal small intestine, penetrates the epithelial layer, and is engulfed by macrophages and neutrophils. Intracellularly, S. Typhimurium encounters highly toxic reactive oxygen species including hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorous acid. The molecular mechanisms of Salmonella resistance to intracellular oxidative stress is not completely understood. The ArcAB two-component system is a global regulatory system that responds to oxygen. In this work, we show that the ArcA response regulator participates in Salmonella adaptation to changing oxygen levels and is also involved in promoting intracellular survival in macrophages and neutrophils, enabling S. Typhimurium to successfully establish a systemic infection.