The association of specific dietary patterns with cardiometabolic outcomes in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus: a scoping review

Hannah O'Hara*, Josh Taylor, Jayne V. Woodside

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Abstract

Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with a significantly increased risk of later type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Post-natal interventions aim to reduce this risk by addressing diet and lifestyle factors and frequently focus on restricting energy or macronutrient intake. With increased interest in the role of complete dietary patterns in the prevention of cardiometabolic disease, we sought to evaluate what is known about the role of dietary patterns in reducing cardiometabolic risk in women with previous GDM. A systematic search was conducted to identify studies relating to dietary pattern and cardiometabolic parameters in women with a history of GDM. The search criteria returned 6014 individual studies. In total, 71 full texts were reviewed, with 24 studies included in the final review. Eleven individual dietary patterns were identified, with the Alternative Health Eating Index (AHEI), Mediterranean diet (MD), and low glycaemic index (GI) as the most commonly featured dietary patterns. Relevant reported outcomes included incident T2DM and glucose tolerance parameters, as well as several cardiovascular risk factors. Dietary patterns which have previously been extensively demonstrated to reduce the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in the general population, including AHEI, MD, and DASH, were found to be associated with a reduction in the incidence of T2DM, hypertension, and additional risk factors for cardiometabolic disease in women with a history of GDM. Notable gaps in the literature were identified, including the relationship between dietary patterns and incident CVD, as well as the relationship between a low GI diet and the development of T2DM in this population.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1613
Number of pages23
JournalNutrients
Early online date27 Mar 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01 Apr 2023

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