Gold nanostars (GNST), gold nanospheres (GNP) and carbon black (CB) are chosen as alternative nanomaterials to modify carbon screen-printed electrodes (c-SPEs). The resulting three kinds of modified c-SPEs (GNP-SPE, CB-SPE and GNSP-SPE) were electrochemically and microscopically characterized and compared with standardized c-SPEs after pretreatment with phosphate buffer by pre-anodization (pre-SPE). The results show outstanding electrochemical performance of the carbon black-modified SPEs which show low transient current, low capacitance and good porosity. A competitive chronoamperometric immunoassay for the shellfish toxin domoic acid (DA) is described. The performances of the CB-SPE, GNP-SPE and pre-SPE were compared. Hapten-functionalized magnetic beads were used to avoid individual c-SPE functionalization with antibody while enhancing the signal by creating optimum surface proximity for electron transfer reactions. This comparison shows that the CB-SPE biosensor operated best at a potential near - 50 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) and enables DA to be determined with a detection limit that is tenfold lower compared to pre-SPE (4 vs. 0.4 ng mL-1). These results show very good agreement with HPLC data when analysing contaminated scallops, and the LOD is 0.7 mg DA kg-1 of shellfish. Graphical abstractSchematic representation of the magnetic bead-based immunoassay for the quantification of domoic acid (DA) in shellfish with nanomaterial-modified screen-printed electrodes. CB, carbon black; GNP, gold nanospheres; GNST, gold nanostars; MB, magnetic beads; DA-mAb, anti-DA monoclonal mouse antibody; HRP-pAb, horseradish conjugated polyclonal goat anti-mouse antibody; DA-BSA, bovine serum albumin conjugated DA; HQ, hydroquinone; BQ, benzoquinone.
Development of smartphone hyphenated colorimetric, plasmonic and electrochemical biosensors for food contaminant detectionAuthor: Nelis, J., Jul 2020
Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis › Doctor of Philosophy