The Effect of Direct Health Education on the Uptake of Screening by First Degree Relatives of Glaucoma Patients in Nigeria

Olakunle Ogunleye, Olusola Olawoye, Tarela Sarimiye, Charles Bekibele, Adeyinka Ashaye

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


PRCIS: First degree relatives (FDRs) of glaucoma patients are more likely to present for screening when they are directly contacted and educated by health workers on the phone compared with when they are only invited by their relative with glaucoma.

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine the effect of direct health education by phone calls on the uptake of glaucoma screening among FDRs of primary open angle glaucoma patients as a glaucoma blindness control strategy in an asymptomatic high-risk African population.

METHODS: This was a randomized clinical trial in which 102 primary open angle glaucoma patients (probands) were randomized into control and intervention groups. Both proband groups were educated about glaucoma and requested by the investigator to invite their adult FDR to attend a screening clinic within 1 month. In addition, the FDRs in the intervention group were directly contacted, educated, and invited for examination by phone calls. A total of 560 FDRs were enumerated by the probands. The main outcome measure was proportion of FDR that presented for screening.

RESULTS: A total of 218 (38.9%) FDRs took up glaucoma screening services. Eighty-nine (30.1%) of the 296 FDRs in the control group and 129 (48.9%) of the 264 FDRs in the intervention group presented for examination. After multivariate analysis, FDRs in the phone call group were 2.506 times [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.695-3.706] more likely to present than FDRs in the no phone call group. Young FDRs were more likely to present [odds ratio (OR)=3.593; 95% CI: 1.613-8.007] than the elderly FDRs, while FDRs living within 200 km of the hospital were also more likely to present (OR=5.200; 95% CI: 2.860-9.456) than those living far (>200 km) away. Probands with moderate to severe visual impairment were significantly more likely (OR=3.073; 95% CI: 1.845-4.352) to have their FDRs present than probands with mild or no visual impairment.

CONCLUSION: Direct contact and health education of FDRs through phone calls had a significant positive effect on the uptake of glaucoma screening by FDRs. We recommend direct contact and education of the FDRs of glaucoma patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)395-401
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Glaucoma
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 01 May 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis
  • Health Education
  • Humans
  • Intraocular Pressure
  • Mass Screening
  • Nigeria


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