Methods: Two hundred and thirty patients were enrolled into prospective trials delivering EPNI with a concomitant hypofractionated IMRT boost to the prostate. During accrual, the method of EPNI delivery changed as new literature emerged. Three methods were used (1) 4FB, (2) IMRT with 2 cm CTV margins around the pelvic vessels as suggested by Shih et al. (2005)  (IMRT-Shih), and (3) IMRT with nodal volumes suggested by the RTOG (IMRT-RTOG). Initially patients were treated with an empty bladder, with the remainder treated with bladder full.
Results: Patients in the 4FB group had higher rates of grade 2 acute GI toxicities compared to the IMRT-Shih and IMRT-RTOG groups (31.9% vs 20.8% vs 7.2%, p = 0.0009). Patients in the 4FB group had higher rates of grade 3 urinary frequency compared to the two IMRT groups (8.5% vs 0% vs 0%, p = 0.027). However, multivariate analysis suggested the factor that most influenced toxicity was bladder filling followed by IMRT.
Conclusions: Bladder filling appeared to be the dominant factor which predicted for acute toxicity, followed by the use of IMRT.
Bibliographical noteCopyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Prostate cancer
- Acute toxicity
- Bladder filling
- Pelvic radiotherapy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging