The effects of domestic cooking on the levels of 3-monochloropropanediol in foods

C. Crews*, P. Brereton, A. Davies

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

70 Citations (Scopus)


The results are reported of a study to determine the effect of domestic cooking procedures on the level of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in selected foods. Samples of 23 foods comprising stock cubes, gravies, a cake mix, batters, breads, cheese and meats were subjected to a range of cooking procedures including grilling, toasting and microwaving. The resulting levels of 3-MCPD were compared with those present in the foods before cooking. Grilling and toasting produced substantial increases in the 3-MCPD content of bread, forming up to 0.3mg/kg, and of most cheeses, resulting in levels of up to about 0.1mg/kg. Microwave cooking produced elevated 3-MCPD levels in some cheeses. Frying laboratoryproduced batters increased 3-MCPD levels to about 0.1mg/kg whereas a retail batter contained no detectable 3-MCPD when fried. The remaining foods showed little or no discernible increase on cooking.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)271-280
Number of pages10
JournalFood Additives and Contaminants
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 01 Jan 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • 2-propanediol
  • 3-chloro-1
  • 3-MCPD
  • Chloropropanols
  • Cooking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Toxicology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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