The effects of surfactants on the performance of polymer-based microwave-induced in situ amorphization

Wei Qiang, Korbinian Löbmann, Colin P. McCoy, Gavin P. Andrews, Min Zhao*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Microwave-induced in situ amorphization is a novel technology for preparing amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) to address the challenges of their long-term physical stability and downstream processing. To date, only few types of dielectric materials have been reported for microwave-induced in situ amorphization, which restricted the extensive research of this technology. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility and mechanisms of utilizing the non-ionic surfactants, i.e. Kollisolv P124, Kolliphor RH40, D-ɑ-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS), Tween (T) 60 (T60), T65, T80 and T85, as plasticizers to facilitate microwave-induced in situ amorphization. It was found that the successful application of surfactants could be related with their low T , low M and high HLB. Kolliphor RH40 was selected as a typical surfactant due to its excellent dielectric heating ability, plasticizing effect and solubilizing effect when facilitating amorphization. Then, the dissolution-mediated in situ amorphization mechanism was investigated and intuitively demonstrated. For the most promising formulation, i.e. microwaved systems with Korlliphor RH40 at 1.5 (w/w) plasticizer/polymer ratio, a complete and fast in vitro dissolution was observed relative to the untreated systems. In conclusion, non-ionic surfactants had the potential to facilitate microwave-induced in situ amorphization, which provided a new direction in the formulation designation for microwave-able systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number122426
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics
Early online date05 Dec 2022
Publication statusPublished - 05 Jan 2023


  • In situ amorphization
  • Amorphous solid dispersion
  • Microwave
  • Surfactant
  • Plasticizer


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