We investigated visuomotor adaptation using an isometric, target-acquisition task. Following trials with no rotation, two participant groups were exposed to a random sequence of 30 degrees clockwise (CW) and 60 degrees counter-clockwise (CCW) rotations, with (DUAL-CUE), or without (DUAL-NO CUE), colour cues that enabled each environment (non-rotated, 30 degrees CW and 60 degrees CCW) to be identified. A further three groups experienced only 30 degrees CW trials or only 60 degrees CCW trials (SINGLE rotation groups) in which each visuomotor mapping was again associated with a colour cue. During training, all SINGLE groups reduced angular deviations of the cursor path during the initial portion of the movements, indicating feedforward adaptation. Consistent with the view that the adaptation occurred automatically via recalibration of the visuomotor mapping (Krakauer et al. 1999), post-training aftereffects were observed, despite colour cues that indicated that no rotation was present. For the DUAL-CUE group, angular deviations decreased with training in the 60 degrees trials, but were unchanged in the 30 degrees trials, while for the DUAL-NO CUE group angular deviations decreased for the 60 degrees CW trials but increased for the 30 degrees CW trials. These results suggest that in a dual adaptation paradigm a colour cue can permit delineation of the two environments, with a subsequent change in behaviour resulting in improved performance in at least one of these environments. Increased reaction times within the training block, together with the absence of aftereffects in the post-training period for the DUAL-CUE group suggest an explicit cue-dependent strategy was used in an attempt to compensate for the rotations.
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