The feasibility of using near infrared and Raman spectroscopic techniques to detect fraudulent adulteration of chili powders with Sudan dye

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Abstract

Chili powder is a globally traded commodity which has been found to be adulterated with Sudan dyes from 2003 onwards. In this study, chili powders were adulterated with varying quantities of Sudan I dye (0.1-5%) and spectra were generated using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and Raman
spectroscopy (on a spectrometer with a sample compartment modified as part of the study). Chemometrics were applied to the spectral data to produce quantitative and qualitative calibration models and prediction statistics. For the quantitative models coefficients of determination (R2) were found to be
0.891-0.994 depending on which spectral data (NIRS/Raman) was processed, the mathematical algorithm used and the data pre-processing applied. The corresponding values for the root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were found to be 0.208-0.851%
and 0.141-0.831% respectively, once again depending on the spectral data and the chemometric treatment applied to the data. Indications are that the NIR spectroscopy based models are superior to the models produced from Raman spectral data based on a comparison of the values of the chemometric
parameters. The limit of detection (LOD) based on analysis of 20 blank chili powders against each calibration model gave 0.25% and 0.88% for the NIR and Raman data, respectively. In addition, adopting a qualitative approach with the spectral data and applying PCA or PLS-DA, it was possible to discriminate
between adulterated chili powders from non-adulterated chili powders.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-83
Number of pages9
JournalFood Control
Volume48
Early online date03 Apr 2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2015

Keywords

  • Chili powders, Sudan I dye, Near-infrared, Raman, Spectroscopy, Chemometrics

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