The formation of human populations in South and Central Asia

Vagheesh M. Narasimhan, Nick Patterson, Priya Moorjani, Nadin Rohland, Rebecca Bernardos, Swapan Mallick, Iosif Lazaridis, Nathan Nakatsuka, Iñigo Olalde, Mark Lipson, Alexander M. Kim, Luca M. Olivieri, Alfredo Coppa, Massimo Vidale, James Mallory, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Egor Kitov, Janet Monge, Nicole Adamski, Neel AlexNasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Francesca Candilio, Kimberly Callan, Olivia Cheronet, Brendan J. Culleton, Matthew Ferry, Daniel Fernandes, Suzanne Freilich, Beatriz Gamarra, Daniel Gaudio, Mateja Hajdinjak, Éadaoin Harney, Thomas K. Harper, Denise Keating, Ann Marie Lawson, Matthew Mah, Kirsten Mandl, Megan Michel, Mario Novak, Jonas Oppenheimer, Niraj Rai, Kendra Sirak, Viviane Slon, Kristin Stewardson, Fatma Zalzala, Zhao Zhang, Gaziz Akhatov, Anatoly N. Bagashev, Alessandra Bagnera, Bauryzhan Baitanayev, Julio Bendezu-Sarmiento, Arman A. Bissembaev, Gian Luca Bonora, Temirlan T. Chargynov, Tatiana Chikisheva, Petr K. Dashkovskiy, Anatoly Derevianko, Miroslav Dobeš, Katerina Douka, Nadezhda Dubova, Meiram N. Duisengali, Dmitry Enshin, Andrey Epimakhov, Alexey V. Fribus, Dorian Fuller, Alexander Goryachev, Andrey Gromov, Sergey P. Grushin, Bryan Hanks, Margaret Judd, Erlan Kazizov, Aleksander Khokhlov, Aleksander P. Krygin, Elena Kupriyanova, Pavel Kuznetsov, Donata Luiselli, Farhod Maksudov, Aslan M. Mamedov, Talgat B. Mamirov, Christopher Meiklejohn, Deborah C. Merrett, Roberto Micheli, Oleg Mochalov, Samariddin Mustafokulov, Ayushi Nayak, Davide Pettener, Richard Potts, Dmitry Razhev, Marina Rykun, Stefania Sarno, Tatyana M. Savenkova, Kulyan Sikhymbaeva, Sergey M. Slepchenko, Oroz A. Soltobaev, Nadezhda Stepanova, Svetlana Svyatko, Kubatbek Tabaldiev, Maria Teschler-Nicola, Alexey A. Tishkin, Vitaly V. Tkachev, Sergey Vasilyev, Petr Velemínský, Dmitriy Voyakin, Antonina Yermolayeva, Muhammad Zahir, Valery S. Zubkov, Alisa Zubova, Vasant S. Shinde, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Matthias Meyer, David Anthony, Nicole Boivin, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Douglas J. Kennett, Michael Frachetti, Ron Pinhasi, David Reich

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Abstract

By sequencing 523 ancient humans, we show that the primary source of ancestry in modern South Asians is a prehistoric genetic gradient between people related to early hunter-gatherers of Iran and Southeast Asia. After the Indus Valley Civilization's decline, its people mixed with individuals in the southeast to form one of the two main ancestral populations of South Asia, whose direct descendants live in southern India. Simultaneously, they mixed with descendants of Steppe pastoralists who, starting around 4000 years ago, spread via Central Asia to form the other main ancestral population. The Steppe ancestry in South Asia has the same profile as that in Bronze Age Eastern Europe, tracking a movement of people that affected both regions and that likely spread the distinctive features shared between Indo-Iranian and Balto-Slavic languages.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberaat7487
JournalScience
Volume365
Issue number6457
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 06 Sep 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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