The future of protein sources in livestock feeds: implications for sustainability and food safety

Georgios Pexas*, Bob Doherty, Ilias Kyriazakis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
126 Downloads (Pure)


The feed-food competition for environmental and economic resources raises increasing concerns about the production and supply of protein for the global livestock sector. Risks to food-security and approaching deadlines for global sustainable development, means exploring alternative protein feed ingredients is imperative. This Review discusses the potential for soilless, local and circular protein feed sources to provide solutions for key sustainability and food-security threats to the global livestock sector, through their partial incorporation in future livestock feeds and feeding systems. In doing so, it offers a holistic insight into the potential opportunities, but also risks associated with such alternatives. Through this analysis, a four-point strategic plan is synthesized to facilitate higher-level policy making that may enable implementation of these alternative ingredients at commercial scales, building toward a more sustainable and resilient livestock industry.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1188467
Number of pages13
JournalFrontiers in Sustainable Food Systems
Publication statusPublished - 13 Sept 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The project was co-funded by the Food Standards Agency (FSA) Grant number FS900202, and the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) Impact Accelerator Accounts of Queen’s University Belfast and University of York. The authors confirm that there has been no significant financial support provided for this work that could have influenced this outcome.

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2023 Pexas, Doherty and Kyriazakis.


  • alternative protein sources
  • cellular agriculture
  • circular agriculture
  • environmental impact
  • food policy
  • food safety
  • soya production
  • sustainable development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Food Science
  • Ecology
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Horticulture


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