We appraised 23 biomarkers previously associated with urothelial cancer in a case-control study. Our aim was to determine whether single biomarkers and/or multivariate algorithms significantly improved on the predictive power of an algorithm based on demographics for prediction of urothelial cancer in patients presenting with hematuria.
Twenty-two biomarkers in urine and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in serum were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and biochip array technology in 2 patient cohorts: 80 patients with urothelial cancer, and 77 controls with confounding pathologies. We used Forward Wald binary logistic regression analyses to create algorithms based on demographic variables designated prior predicted probability (PPP) and multivariate algorithms, which included PPP as a single variable. Areas under the curve (AUC) were determined after receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analysis for single biomarkers and algorithms.
After univariate analysis, 9 biomarkers were differentially expressed (t test; P