The Impact of Multimedia Education on Uptake of Comprehensive Eye Examinations in Rural China: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

Aihua Dan, Graham Raubvogel, Tingting Chen, Tiantian Ye, Ling Jin, Baixiang Xiao, Ana Sanchez, Nathan Congdon

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11 Citations (Scopus)


PURPOSE: To study the effect of multimedia education on acceptance of comprehensive eye examinations (CEEs), critical for detecting glaucoma and diabetic eye disease, among rural Chinese patients using a randomized, controlled design.
METHODS: Patients aged ≥40 years were recruited from 52 routine clinic sessions (26 intervention, 26 control) conducted at seven rural hospitals in Guangdong, China. Subjects answered demographic questionnaires, were tested on knowledge about CEEs and chronic eye disease, and were told the cost of examination (range US$0-8). At intervention sessions, subjects were cluster-randomized to view a 10-minute video on the value of CEEs and retested. Control subjects were not retested. Trial outcomes were acceptance of CEEs (primary outcome) and final knowledge scores (secondary outcome).
RESULTS: At baseline, >70% (p = 0.70) of both intervention (n = 241, 61.2 ± 12.3 years) and control (n = 218, 58.4 ± 11.7 years) subjects answered no knowledge questions correctly, but mean scores on the test (maximum 5 points) increased by 1.39 (standard deviation 0.12) points (p < 0.001) after viewing the video. Intervention (73.0%) and control (72.9%) subjects did not differ in acceptance of CEEs (p > 0.50). In mixed-effect logistic regression models, acceptance of CEEs was associated with availability of free CEEs (odds ratio 18.3, 95% confidence interval 1.32-253.0), but not group assignment or knowledge score. Acceptance was 97.5% (79/81) when free exams were offered.
CONCLUSIONS: Education increased knowledge about but not acceptance of CEEs, which was generally high. Making CEEs free could further increase acceptance.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)283-290
JournalOphthalmic Epidemiology
Issue number4
Early online date28 Jul 2015
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • Adherence; China; comprehensive eye examination; diabetic retinopathy; education; glaucoma; randomized trial; rural


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