The incremental yield of prenatal exome sequencing over chromosome microarray for congenital heart abnormalities: a systematic review and meta-analysis

K. Reilly, S. Sonner, N. McCay, D. L. Rolnik, F. Casey, A. N. Seale, C. J. Watson, A. Kan, T. H. T. Lai, B. H. Y. Chung, K. E. M. Diderich, M. I. Srebniak, E. Dempsey, S. Drury, J. Giordano, R. Wapner, M. D. Kilby, L. S. Chitty, F. Mone*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Abstract

Objectives
To determine the incremental yield of prenatal exome sequencing (PES) over standard testing in fetuses with an isolated congenital heart abnormality (CHA), CHA associated with extra-cardiac malformations (ECMs) and CHA dependent upon anatomical subclassification.

Methods
A systematic review of the literature was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and grey literature January 2010-February 2023. Studies were selected if they included greater than 20 cases of prenatally diagnosed CHA when standard testing (QF-PCR/chromosome microarray/karyotype) was negative. Pooled incremental yield was determined. PROSPERO CRD 42022364747.

Results
Overall, 21 studies, incorporating 1957 cases were included. The incremental yield of PES (causative pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants) over standard testing was 17.4% (95% CI, 13.5%–21.6%), 9.3% (95% CI, 6.6%–12.3%) and 35.9% (95% CI, 21.0%–52.3%) for all CHAs, isolated CHAs and CHAs associated with ECMs. The subgroup with the greatest yield was complex lesions/heterotaxy; 35.2% (95% CI 9.7%–65.3%). The most common syndrome was Kabuki syndrome (31/256, 12.1%) and most pathogenic variants occurred de novo and in autosomal dominant (monoallelic) disease causing genes (114/224, 50.9%).

Conclusion
The likelihood of a monogenic aetiology in fetuses with multi-system CHAs is high. Clinicians must consider the clinical utility of offering PES in selected isolated cardiac lesions.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages11
JournalPrenatal Diagnosis
Early online date06 May 2024
DOIs
Publication statusEarly online date - 06 May 2024

Keywords

  • exome sequencing
  • Fetus/abnormalities
  • fetus
  • Congenital heart defect

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