The lip: A histologic and analytical approach of relevance to esthetic plastic surgery

Rola Abdullah Al-Hoqail, Eiman Mohamed Abdel Meguid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


This is a study done for the first time to understand the histologic features of the lip deeply, quantitatively, and analytically and identify the differences between the outer, intermediate, and inner parts of the lips. Previous researchers did not tackle the histologic features of the lip from this point of view. Half lip was obtained from different well-preserved cadavers where the upper lip, lower lip, and lip angle were evaluated by coronal histologic sections. A total of 43 slides were studied and photographed using light and digital microscopes (Nikon COOLSCOPE, Nikon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), respectively. The cadavers (26 men and 17 women) were in the age group of 45 to 65 years old, and older than 65 years. Data were entered on a study pro forma and statistically analyzed. Normal histologic features of the upper lip, intermediate, and the inner lip sections were observed. Fibrous septations that sometimes had muscular components inserting into them could be identified. In between these septations, there were loose areas (chambers). The mean numbers of chambers identified in the upper and lower lips were higher in the red areas, and more septations and chambers were identified in the lower lip. New histologic observations were classified into types 1 to 7. Significant relations were identified between the total number of septations and chambers in relation to age group and sex. Higher means of septations and chambers were detected in the age group older than 65 years, and in women as a whole. In conclusion, the findings detected in this work could explain the congenital lip pits that are familial or syndromic and many post-lip augmentation complications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)726-732
Number of pages7
JournalThe Journal of craniofacial surgery
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 01 May 2009


  • Esthetic surgery of the lip
  • Histologic features of the lip
  • Histologic lip measurements and analyses
  • Lip

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Surgery


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