The long-term fate of permafrost peatlands under rapid climate warming

Graeme Swindles, Paul Morris, Donal Mullan, Elizabeth Watson, Ed Turner, Tom Roland, Matt Amesbury, Ulla Kokfelt, Kristian Schoning, Steve Pratte, Angela Gallego-Sala, Dan Charman, Nicole Sanderson, Michelle Garneau, Jonathan Carrivick, Clare Woulds, Joseph Holden, Lauren Parry, Jennifer Galloway

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    61 Citations (Scopus)
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    Abstract

    Permafrost peatlands contain globally important amounts of soil organic carbon, owing to cold conditions which suppress anaerobic decomposition. However, climate warming and permafrost thaw threaten the stability of this carbon store. The ultimate fate of permafrost peatlands and their carbon stores is unclear because of complex feedbacks between peat accumulation, hydrology and vegetation. Field monitoring campaigns only span the last few decades and therefore provide an incomplete picture of permafrost peatland response to recent rapid warming. Here we use a high-resolution palaeoecological approach to understand the longer-term response of peatlands in contrasting states of permafrost degradation to recent rapid warming. At all sites we identify a drying trend until the late-twentieth century; however, two sites subsequently experienced a rapid shift to wetter conditions as permafrost thawed in response to climatic warming, culminating in collapse of the peat domes. Commonalities between study sites lead us to propose a five-phase model for permafrost peatland response to climatic warming. This model suggests a shared ecohydrological trajectory towards a common end point: inundated Arctic fen. Although carbon accumulation is rapid in such sites, saturated soil conditions are likely to cause elevated methane emissions that have implications for climate-feedback mechanisms.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number17951
    Number of pages6
    JournalScientific Reports
    Volume5
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 09 Dec 2015

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