The potential for human exposure, direct and indirect, to the suspected carcinogenic triphenylmethane dye Brilliant Green from green paper towels

Michalina Oplatowska, Ryan Donnelly, Rita Majithiya, D. Glenn Kennedy, Christopher Elliott

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

42 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Triphenylmethanes - Malachite Green (MG), Crystal Violet (CV) and Brilliant Green (BC) are dyes with known genotoxic and carcinogenic properties. Apart from being illegally used in aquaculture for treatment of fish diseases they are also applied in industry such as paper production to colour paper towels widely used in hospitals, factories and other locations for hand drying after washing. The present study provides evidence that the triphenylmethane dye (BC) present in green paper towels can migrate through the skin even when the exposure time is short (30-300 s). The transfer of the dye from the towel to food (fish) was also studied and a high amount of colour was found to migrate during overnight exposure. The risk to humans associated with these two dye transfer studies was assessed using a 'margin of exposure approach' on the basis of the toxicological data available for the closely related dye MG and its metabolite Leucomalachite Green. The data indicated that the risk associated with the use of triphenylmethane containing paper towels is of a similar proportion to the risk associated with consumption of fish contaminated with these dyes due to the illegal application in aquaculture. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1870-1876
Number of pages7
JournalFood & Chemical Toxicology
Volume49
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Toxicology

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