Small off-road engines (SORE) have been recognised as a major source of air pollution. It is estimated that non handheld SORE annually produce over 1 million tonnes of HC+NOx and over 50 million tonnes of CO2. The fuel system design and its operating AFR are of key importance with regard to engine operation and engine out emissions. The conventional low-cost float carburettors used in these engines are relatively ineffective at atomising and preparing the fuel for combustion requiring a rich setting for acceptable functional performance. EPA and CARB have confirmed that Phase 3 limits are achievable for a “durable” engine fitted with a conventional well calibrated and manufactured “stock rich setting” float carburettor together with catalytic oxidation after-treatment and passive secondary air injection. The EPA and CARB strategy for meeting Phase 3 only considers the use of conventional float carburettors that operate at rich AFR’s over their entire engine operating range as no other cost effective alternative fuel system is yet available on the market. A cost effective alternative to the conventional carburettor that enabled leaner or optimised AFR operation with load and improved combustion performance would open the door to alternative strategies to meeting the phase 3 limits. This paper presents a completely new form of mechanical carburettor that gives AFR control with load, improved mixture preparation for improved combustion performance and has a lower production cost than conventional carburettors. The conventional and new fuel system designs and operation are discussed in detail and their technical merits demonstrated in the form of engine test data. The performance of different after-treatment systems is also simulated for different AFR profiles with load for a conventional or unmodified SORE engine. With optimised leaner operation and improved combustion characteristics, this new carburettor technology can provide significant engine out CO and HC+NOx reductions on the J1088 test cycle without loss of functional performance. Depending on the chosen emissions control strategy, minimum engine out emissions or optimum engine AFR for oxidation or three-way after-treatment or another, this new carburettor technology can be easily calibrated to provide the desired engine operating AFR profile on the J1088 cycle.
Glover, S., Douglas, R., & Omarsson, K. (2008). The Potential of a New Type of Carburettor to Assist SORE in Meeting EPA / CARB Phase 3 Legislation. SAE Transactions Journal of Engines, 116-3(null), 1704-1725. http://digitallibrary.sae.org/content/v116-3