The relationship between obesity, diabetes, hypertension and vitamin D deficiency among Saudi Arabians aged 15 and over: results from the Saudi health interview survey

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Abstract

Background: Obesity and diabetes are related conditions, the prevalence of which has increased globally in recent years. These conditions have been linked to hypertension and vitamin D deficiency though the nature of the relationship remains unclear and is likely to vary between identifiable groups and specific contexts. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationships between obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and vitamin D, among Saudis citizens aged 15 and over. Methods: Self-reported and measured data were taken from the 2013 Saudi Health Interview Survey and analysed using a series of seemingly unrelated bivariate probit regression (SURBVP) analyses. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken in which the selection and specification of covariates and outcomes were varied. Results: In the main analysis data on 957 women and 1127 men were analysed. Differences were evident between men and women in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, obesity, central obesity, hypertension and vitamin D deficiency. While men were more likely to experience diabetes and hypertension, women were more likely to experience obesity, central obesity and vitamin D deficiency. In multivariable analyses obesity and age were found to significantly predict hypertension risk in women; central obesity to predict diabetes risk in men and women, as well as hypertension risk in men. Vitamin D was not found to predict diabetes risk nor hypertension risk in either sex. Milk consumption and sun exposure were found to predict vitamin D deficiency in women but not men. While there was evidence of unobserved heterogeneity in models predicting diabetes and hypertension, there was no evidence of unobserved heterogeneity between these and those predicting vitamin D deficiency. Results did not materially change over a range of sensitivity analyses.

Original languageEnglish
Article number81
Number of pages9
JournalBMC endocrine disorders
Volume20
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 05 Jun 2020

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