The phosphorylation status of the small hydrophobic (SH) protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was examined in virus-infected Vero cells. The SH protein v.,as isolated from [S-35]methionine- and [P-33]orthophosphate-labelled IRSV-infected cells and analysed by SDS-PAGE. In each case, a protein product of the expected size for the SH protein was observed. Phosphoamino acid analysis and reactivity with the phosphotyrosine specific antibody PY20 showed that the SH protein was modified by tyrosine phosphorylation. The role or tyrosine kinase activity in SH protein phosphorylation was confirmed by the use of genistein, a broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor, to inhibit SH protein phosphorylation. Further analysis showed that the different glycosylated forms of the SH protein were phosphorylated, as was the oligomeric form of the protein. Phosphorylation of the SH protein was specifically inhibited by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 inhibitor SB203580, suggesting that SH protein phosphorylation occurs via a MAPK p38-dependent pathway. Analysis of virus-infected cells using fluorescence microscopy showed that, although the SH protein was distributed throughout the cytoplasm, it appeared to accumulate, at low levels, in the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi complex, confirming recent observations. However, in the presence of SB203580. an increased accumulation of the SH protein in the Golgi complex was observed, although other virus structures, such as virus filaments and inclusion bodies, remained largely unaffected. These results showed that during RSV infection, the SH protein is modified by an MAPK p38-dependant tyrosine kinase activity and that this modification influences its cellular distribution.
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Rixon, H. W. M., Brown, G., Murray, J., & Sugrue, R. J. (2005). The respiratory syncytial virus small hydrophobic protein is phosphorylated via a mitogen-activated protein kinase p38-dependent tyrosine kinase activity during virus infection. Journal of General Virology, 86(2), 375-384. https://doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.80563-0