Peptidyl prolyl isomerases (PPIases) are proteins belonging to the immunophilin family and are characterised by their cis-trans isomerization activity at the X-Pro peptide bond, in addition to their tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, important for interaction with the molecular chaperone, Hsp90. Due to this unique structure these proteins are able to facilitate protein-protein interactions which can impact significantly on a range of cellular processes such as cell signalling, differentiation, cell cycle progression, metabolic activity and apoptosis. Malfunction and/or dysregulation of most members of this class of proteins promotes cellular damage and tissue/organ failure, predisposing to ageing and age-related diseases. Many individual genes within the PPIase family are associated with several age-related diseases including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), atherosclerosis, type II diabetes (T2D), chronic kidney disease (CDK), neurodegeneration, cancer and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), in addition to the ageing process itself. This review will focus on the different roles of PPIases, and their therapeutic/biomarker potential in these age-related vascular diseases.
- PPIases, FKBPs, CypA, Pin1, aging, age-related diseases, vascular