Four different bombesins (bombesin, His(6)-bombesin, Phe(13)-bombesin and Asp(2)-, Phe(4)-SAP-bombesin) have been identified by a systematic sequencing study of peptides in reverse phase HPLC fractions of the skin secretion of the European yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata, that had been solvated in 0.1% (v/v) aqueous trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and stored frozen at -20°C for 12 years. By using a 3'- and 5'-RACE PCR strategy, the corresponding biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs of all four peptides were cloned from a cDNA library made from the same long-term frozen, acid-solvated skin secretion sample following thawing and lyophilization. Canonical bombesin and His(6)-bombesin are classical bombesin sub-family members, whereas Phe(13)-bombesin and Asp(2)-, Phe(4)-SAP-bombesin, belong to the litorin/ranatensin sub-family of bombesin-like peptides (BLPs). Assignment of these peptides to respective sub-families, was based upon both their primary structural similarities and their comparative pharmacological activities. An interesting observation in this study, was that the nucleotide sequences of the open-reading frames of cloned cDNAs encoding bombesin and its His(6)-substituted analog, were identical except for a single base that was responsible for the change observed at the position 6 residue in the mature peptide from Asn to His. In contrast, the precursor cDNA nucleotide sequences encoding the Phe(13)-bombesins, exhibited 53 base differences. The pharmacological activities of synthetic replicates of each bombesin were compared using two different mammalian smooth muscle preparations and all four peptides were found to be active. However, there were significant differences in their relative potencies.
- Amphibian; Skin; Peptide; Bombesin; Smooth muscle; Cloning
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience