As a type of promising sustainable energy resource, biofuel has come to its fourth generation. However, the lignocellulosic biomass derived second generation of biofuel remains the most intensively developed nowadays. Biofuel can be produced by either biochemical or thermochemical conversion approach, and the thermochemical conversion usually comes with high efficiency and productivity. During non-aqueous thermochemical conversion processes, biomass would successively experience torrefaction and carbonization (under 400˚C), fast pyrolysis (400 and 700˚C), gasification (700 to 900˚C) and combustion (above 900˚C), respectively producing carbon concentrated solid fuels, liquid hydrocarbon products, and gaseous fuels, and releasing entire energy directly in the combustion. Hydrothermal conversions come with mild temperatures, but normally in the presence of water and high pressure. Proper temperature, pressure and heating rate are crucial for thermochemical conversion, and can be realised by various reactors. More understanding regarding the conversion mechanism, reactors and feedstock composition are essential for large-scale industrialization of biofuels.
|Title of host publication||Biomass, Biopolymer-Based Materials, and Bioenergy|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 2019|