Exercise participation and activity levels are low in many older adults, and when paired with the multi-systemic effects of ageing, such as sarcopenia and decreased cardiovascular function, can result in a loss of functional independence. Voluntary exercise may not always be feasible for these individuals, highlighting a need for alternative therapies. There is a growing body of literature that recognises the positive effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on muscle strength, muscle mass and cardiorespiratory function in older adults. However, NMES suffers from poor clinical acceptability due to multiple barriers to its use, and poor patient engagement and adherence have been noted. Technology-based supports to exercise, such as biofeedback and 'gamification', have been effectively paired with a variety of rehabilitation interventions. This suggests that these supports could be promising additions to an NMES exercise system to reduce barriers to its use and maximise clinical outcomes.
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- Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods
- Muscle Strength/physiology
- Treatment Outcome