The use of recycled demolition aggregate in precast concrete products – Phase III: Concrete pavement flags

Marios Soutsos, Kangkang Tang, Stephen Millard

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    24 Citations (Scopus)
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    A study undertaken at the University of Liverpool has investigated the potential for using construction and demolition waste (C&DW) derived aggregate in the manufacture of a range of precast concrete products, i.e. building and paving blocks and pavement flags. Phase III, which is reported here, investigated
    concrete pavement flags. This was subsequent to studies on building and paving blocks. Recycled demolition aggregate can be used to replace newly quarried limestone aggregate, usually used in coarse (6 mm) and fine (4 mm-to-dust) gradings. The first objective was, as was the case with concrete building
    and paving blocks, to replicate the process used by industry in fabricating concrete pavement flags in the laboratory. The ‘‘wet’’ casting technique used by industry for making concrete flags requires a very workable mix so that the concrete flows into the mould before it is compressed. Compression squeezes out water from the top as well as the bottom of the mould. This industrial casting procedure was successfully replicated in the laboratory by using an appropriately modified cube crushing machine and a special mould typical of what is used by industry. The mould could be filled outside of the cube crushing machine and then rolled onto a steel frame and into the machine for it to be compressed. The texture and mechanical properties of the laboratory concrete flags were found to be similar to the factory ones. The experimental work involved two main series of tests, i.e. concrete flags made with concrete- and
    masonry-derived aggregate. Investigation of flexural strength was required for concrete paving flags. This is different from building blocks and paving blocks which required compressive and tensile splitting strength respectively. Upper levels of replacement with recycled demolition aggregate were determined
    that produced similar flexural strength to paving flags made with newly quarried aggregates, without requiring an increase in the cement content. With up to 60% of the coarse or 40% of the fine fractions replaced with concrete-derived aggregates, the target mean flexural strength of 5.0 N/mm2 was still
    achieved at the age of 28 days. There was similar detrimental effect by incorporating the fine masonry-derived aggregate. A replacement level of 70% for coarse was found to be satisfactory and also conservative. However, the fine fraction replacement could only be up to 30% and even reduced to 15% when used for mixes where 60% of the coarse fraction was also masonry-derived aggregate.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)674-680
    Number of pages7
    JournalConstruction and Building Materials
    Issue number11
    Early online date15 Jul 2012
    Publication statusPublished - Nov 2012


    • Recycling of materials
    • Sustainability
    • Construction and demolition waste
    • Recycled demolition aggregate
    • Concrete flags
    • Aggregates
    • Environment
    • Landfill

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Civil and Structural Engineering
    • Building and Construction
    • Materials Science(all)


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