Objectives: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to analyze the differences in tongue pressure (TP) in healthy subjects <60, compared to healthy subjects ≧60 years. Methods: In July 2018, the PubMed library and the Japanese database Ichushi-Web were searched systematically by two independent reviewers, for studies reporting on TP in healthy populations. Clinical studies, published between 1959 and July 2018 with more than 10 participants per relevant study cohort, written in English, German or Japanese, reporting TP in kilopascal (kPa) were included. Secondary outcomes were the influence of gender and the type of measuring device (Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI) vs. JMS tongue pressure measurement device (JMS)) on TP. For statistical analysis, a random-effects meta-regression for aggregate-level data was used (α<0.05). Results: The systematic search identified 2895 titles. After screening of 117 abstracts, 83 full-text articles were analyzed, and finally, 46 studies were included. A total of 5068 participants with a mean age of 27.3±6.7 years in <60 years people (n=2153) and was 75.5±5.5 years in ≧60 years people (n=2915) were analyzed. TP was significantly higher in <60 years subjects (estimated weighted mean (EWM)=54.3kPa; 95%CI=51.2-57.4) compared to ≧60 years subjects (EWM=35.7kPa; 95%CI=32.6-38.7) (p<0.001), men (EWM=50.0kPa; 95%CI=44.6-55.5) compared to women (EWM=41.4kPa; 95%CI=35.8-47.0) (p=0.031), and when assessed with the IOPI (EWM=52.9kPa; 95%CI=50.1-55.8) compared to the JMS (EWM=34.1kPa; 95%CI=30.8-37.4) (p<0.001). In terms of gender, there was no difference in TP, in subjects ≧60 years, (p=0.228), however, in subjects <60 years, a significant difference could be demonstrated (p=0.019). Conclusions: In healthy populations, there is a difference in TP in subjects <60 years compared to ≧60 years. TP measured by the IOPI is significantly higher compared to JMS values. Subject’s gender only influences TP in subjects <60 years but not in older populations.
Arakawa, I., Igrashi, K., Muller, F., McKenna, G., Abou-ayash, S., & Schimmel, M. (Accepted/In press). Tongue Pressure in Healthy Populations:A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Dental Research.