Topographical Response of Retinal Neovascularization to Aflibercept or Panretinal Photocoagulation in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy: Post Hoc Analysis of the CLARITY Randomized Clinical Trial

Sandra Halim, Manjula Nugawela, Usha Chakravarthy, Tunde Peto, Savita Madhusudhan, Pauline Lenfestey, Barbara Hamill, Yalin Zheng, David Parry, Luke Nicholson, John Greenwood, Sobha Sivaprasad

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Abstract

Importance: Eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy have a variable response to treatment with panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents. The location of neovascularization (NV) is associated with outcomes (eg, patients with disc NV [NVD] have poorer visual prognosis than those with NV elsewhere [NVE]).

Objective: To investigate the distribution of NV in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and the topographical response of NV to treatment with aflibercept or PRP.

Design, Setting, and Participants: This post hoc analysis of the phase 2b randomized clinical single-masked multicenter noninferiority Clinical Efficacy and Mechanistic Evaluation of Aflibercept for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (CLARITY) trial was conducted from November 1, 2019, to September 1, 2020, among 120 treatment-naive patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy to evaluate the topography of NVD and NVE in 4 quadrants of the retina on color fundus photography at baseline and at 12 and 52 weeks after treatment.

Exposures: In the CLARITY trial, patients were randomized to receive intravitreal aflibercept (2 mg/0.05 mL at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks, and as needed from 12 weeks onward) or PRP (completed in initial fractionated sessions and then on an as-needed basis when reviewed every 8 weeks).

Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcomes were per-retinal quadrant frequencies of NV at baseline and frequencies of patterns of regression, recurrence, and new occurrence at 12-week and 52-week unmasked follow-up.

Results: The study included 120 treatment-naive patients (75 men; mean [SD] age, 54.8 [14.6] years) with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (there was a 1:1 ratio of eyes to patients). At baseline, NVD with or without NVE was observed in 42 eyes (35.0%), and NVE only was found in 78 eyes (65.0%); NVE had a predilection for the nasal quadrant (64 [53.3%]). Rates of regression with treatment were higher among eyes with NVE (89 of 102 [87.3%]) compared with eyes with NVD (23 of 43 [53.5%]) by 52 weeks, with NVD being more resistant to either treatment with higher rates of persistence than NVE (20 of 39 [51.3%] vs 29 of 100 [29.0%]). Considering NVE, the regression rate in the temporal quadrant was lowest (32 of 42 [76.2%]). Eyes treated with aflibercept showed higher rates of regression of NVE compared with those treated with PRP (50 of 52 [96.2%] vs 39 of 50 [78.0%]; difference, 18.2% [95% CI, 5.5%-30.8%]; P = .01), but no difference was found for NVD (11 of 17 [64.7%] vs 12 of 26 [46.2%]; difference, 18.6% [95% CI, -11.2% to 48.3%]; P = .23).

Conclusions and Relevance: This post hoc analysis found that NVD is less frequent but is associated with more resistance to currently available treatments than NVE. Aflibercept was superior to PRP for treating NVE, but neither treatment was particularly effective against NVD by 52 weeks. Future treatments are needed to better target NVD, which has poorer visual prognosis.

Trial Registration: isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN32207582.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJAMA Ophthalmology
Early online date11 Mar 2021
DOIs
Publication statusEarly online date - 11 Mar 2021

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