KF, LiF and CsF/A(2)O(3) catalysts with different loadings from 1 to 20 wt% were prepared using aqueous solutions of the alkaline fluoride compounds by wet impregnation of basic mesoporous MSU-type alumina. The catalysts were activated under At at 400 degrees C for 2 h and monitored by in situ XRD measurements. The catalysts were also characterized using several techniques: N-2 adsorption/desorption isotherms at -196 degrees C, FTIR, DR-UV-vis, CO2-TPD, XRD, Al-27 CP/MAS NMR. These characterizations led to the conclusion that the deposition of alkaline fluorides on the alumina surface generates fluoroaluminates and aluminate species. The process is definitivated at 400 degrees C. The fluorine in these structures is less basic than in the parent fluorides, but the oxygen becomes more basic. The catalysts were tested for the transesterification of fatty esters under different experimental conditions using conventional heating, microwave and Ultrasound irradiation. Recycling experiments showed that these catalysts are stable for a limited number of cycles. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry