Two new metabolites from a marine-derived fungus Penicillium ochrochloron

Peter M. Eze*, Yang Liu, Viktor E. Simons, Sherif S. Ebada*, Tibor Kurtán, Sándor Balázs Király, Charles O. Esimone, Festus B.C. Okoye, Peter Proksch, Rainer Kalscheuer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Co-culturing of fungi and bacteria proved to be an efficient tool for inducing the expression of silent biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). This study reports the isolation of a new meroterpenoid derivative, andrastin I (1), from a marine-derived fungus Penicillium ochrochloron. Co-cultivation of the fungus with Bacillus subtilis yielded another new natural product, a butyrolactone congener, ochrochloronic acid (2) and the known fungal metabolite striatisporolide A. Chemical structures of all isolated compounds were confirmed based on HRESIMS as well as, extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectral analyses. Absolute configuration of 1 was established by comparing the experimental ECD with those of known analogues. Results of this study highlight the potential of marine fungi as sources of new natural products and demonstrates the efficiency of fungal-bacterial co-cultivation as a promising tool to induce the immense biosynthetic capabilities of silent BGCs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101-104
Number of pages4
JournalPhytochemistry Letters
Early online date29 Apr 2023
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
PME acknowledges the Africa Research Excellence Fund (AREF) for financing his research stay at the Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology and Biotechnology, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany. SSE thanks Alexander von Humboldt (AvH) Foundation for granting him the Georg-Forster Fellowship for Experienced Researchers (2022-2024). The authors thank CeMSA@HHU (Center for Molecular and Structural Analysis at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf) for recording the mass spectrometric and NMR spectroscopic data. Assistance by Dr. Lasse van Geelen during biological activity testing is greatly acknowledged.

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Africa Research Excellence Fund (AREF) within the frame of the EDCTP-AREF Joint Preparatory Fellowship (Grant numbers: MRF-157-0034-F-EZE(A)/C0763 , MRF-157-0034-F-EZE(A)/C0764) . The research work of T. K. and S. B. K. was supported by the National Research, Development and Innovation Office ( K138672 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Phytochemical Society of Europe


  • Andrastin
  • Bacillus subtilis
  • Co-cultivation
  • Fungi
  • Penicillium ochrochloron

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biochemistry
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Plant Science


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