Congenital or familial erythrocytosis/polycythemia can have many causes, and an emerging cause is genetic disruption of the oxygen-sensing pathway that regulates the Erythropoietin (EPO) gene. More specifically, recent studies have identified erythrocytosis-associated mutations in the HIF2A gene, which encodes for Hypoxia Inducible Factor-2a (HIF-2a), as well as in two genes that encode for proteins that regulate it, Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain protein 2 (PHD2) and the von Hippel Lindau tumor suppressor protein (VHL). We report here the identification of two new heterozygous HIF2A missense mutations, M535T, and F540L, both associated with erythrocytosis. Met-535 has previously been identified as a residue mutated in other patients with erythrocytosis; although, the mutation of this particular residue to Thr has not been reported. In contrast, Phe-540 has not been reported as a residue mutated in erythrocytosis, and we present evidence here that this mutation impairs interaction of HIF-2a with both VHL and PHD2.