Ultrafast and low-power graphene wheatstone bridge respiratory sensor

Sabitha Ann Jose, Jingqin Mao, Yahya Atwa, Paul Baine, David McNeill, Hamza Shakeel*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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This letter presents a novel respiratory sensor that is both low-power and ultrafast and was manufactured using a standard graphene foundry service. The sensor is based on four microribbon patterned graphene resistors arranged in a Wheatstone bridge configuration, with two encapsulated resistors acting as a reference and the other two nonencapsulated resistors serving as sense resistors exposed to human breath samples. The sensor has demonstrated the ability to detect various patterns of human breath, with an average fall time of approximately 500 ms ± 23 ms and a rise time of around 560 ms ± 32 ms. Furthermore, the sensor also has been tested on six volunteers and has been used to measure breath variation during chewing a mouth freshener containing menthol, indicating its potential for respiratory sensing and breath analysis. The results indicate that the sensor can be utilized as a miniature wearable device that is lightweight and has low power consumption, with a power usage of only 0.3 mW.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4501004
Number of pages4
JournalIEEE Sensors Letters
Issue number7
Early online date26 Jun 2023
Publication statusPublished - 01 Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 IEEE.


  • Chemical and biological sensors
  • graphene
  • low power sensor
  • microribbons
  • respiratory sensor
  • Wheatstone bridge

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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