The EU27 countries exert significant influence on the global patterns of the CO2-Emissions-Water-Energy (CWE) nexus. However, whether the associated benefits are similar for all countries is unclear. In this paper, an EU27 multiregional input-output model, at a sector level to identify the inter-regional and -sectoral CWE flows, and clarify the regional, sectoral and worldwide patterns of EU27 CWE network is presented. The results revealed an environmental inequality across the EU27 and impacts on the rest of the world. The EU27 countries contributed 1.4 Gt less CO2 emissions, 64.5 Gm3 less water utilisation and 49 EJ less energy consumption, compared to the rest of the world while generating the equivalent economic output in 2014. This has dramatic effects upon the global environment. Germany, France and Italy are the biggest beneficiaries in the CWE nexus in the EU27. It is recommended that the EU27 provide more technical support to upstream countries in the EU and elsewhere to strive to improve their resource utilisation efficiencies.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study is funded by the EU project “Sustainable Process Integration Laboratory – SPIL”, project No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_003/0000456 funded by EU “CZ Operational Programme Research, Development and Education”, Priority 1: Strengthening capacity for quality research under the collaboration agreement with Fudan University and Beijing Normal University , as well as the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 71961137009 ; No. 71774032 ) and Newton Advanced Fellowship from the British Academy and the Newton Fund ( NAFR2180103 ).
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- Carbon-water-energy flows
- Embodied CO
- Embodied energy
- Embodied water
- Input-output model
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment