Upcycling brewer's spent grain waste into activated carbon and carbon nanotubes via two-stage activation for energy and other applications

Ahmed Ibrahim Osman Ahmed, Edward O’Connor, Glenn McSpadden, Jehad Abu-Dahrieh, Charles Farrell, Ala Muhtaseb, John Harrison, David Rooney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In this study activated carbon (AC) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesised from Brewer’s Spent Grain (BSG); a form of lignocellulosic biomass, more commonly known as barley waste. A novel approach involving two activation steps; firstly, with phosphoric acid (designated BAC-P) and then using potassium hydroxide (designated BAC-K) was proposed for the production of AC and CNTs from BSG. The AC produced showed a surface area as high as 692.3 m2.g-1 with a pore volume of 0.44 cm3.g-1. This can help aid and facilitate the circular economy by effectively up-cycling and valorising waste lignocellulosic biomass to high surface area AC and subsequently, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Consequently, MWCNTs were prepared from the produced AC by mixing it with the nitrogen-based material melamine and iron precursor, iron (III) oxalate hexahydrate, where it produced a hydrophilic multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Both AC and CNTs materials were used in heavy metal removal (HMR), where the maximum lead absorption was observed for sample BAC-K with 77% removal capacity after the first hour of testing. This result signifies that the synthesis of these up-cycled materials can have application in the areas of wastewater treatment or other AC/CNT end uses with a rapid cycle time.
Original languageEnglish
Article number10.1002/jctb.6220
JournalChemical Technology and Biotechnology
Early online date30 Sep 2019
DOIs
Publication statusEarly online date - 30 Sep 2019

Fingerprint

Carbon Nanotubes
Activated carbon
Chemical activation
Biomass
Iron
Oxalates
Heavy Metals
Wastewater treatment
Nitrogen
Testing

Keywords

  • Brewer’s Spent Grain
  • Biomass
  • Activated carbon
  • Carbon nanotube
  • pyrolysis
  • Activating agent
  • Multi-wall carbon nanotubes
  • Carbon nanoparticles

Cite this

@article{7a8ab80c5feb4ecea3c06e7e1856a21c,
title = "Upcycling brewer's spent grain waste into activated carbon and carbon nanotubes via two-stage activation for energy and other applications",
abstract = "In this study activated carbon (AC) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesised from Brewer’s Spent Grain (BSG); a form of lignocellulosic biomass, more commonly known as barley waste. A novel approach involving two activation steps; firstly, with phosphoric acid (designated BAC-P) and then using potassium hydroxide (designated BAC-K) was proposed for the production of AC and CNTs from BSG. The AC produced showed a surface area as high as 692.3 m2.g-1 with a pore volume of 0.44 cm3.g-1. This can help aid and facilitate the circular economy by effectively up-cycling and valorising waste lignocellulosic biomass to high surface area AC and subsequently, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Consequently, MWCNTs were prepared from the produced AC by mixing it with the nitrogen-based material melamine and iron precursor, iron (III) oxalate hexahydrate, where it produced a hydrophilic multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Both AC and CNTs materials were used in heavy metal removal (HMR), where the maximum lead absorption was observed for sample BAC-K with 77{\%} removal capacity after the first hour of testing. This result signifies that the synthesis of these up-cycled materials can have application in the areas of wastewater treatment or other AC/CNT end uses with a rapid cycle time.",
keywords = "Brewer’s Spent Grain, Biomass, Activated carbon, Carbon nanotube, pyrolysis, Activating agent, Multi-wall carbon nanotubes, Carbon nanoparticles",
author = "{Osman Ahmed}, {Ahmed Ibrahim} and Edward O’Connor and Glenn McSpadden and Jehad Abu-Dahrieh and Charles Farrell and Ala Muhtaseb and John Harrison and David Rooney",
year = "2019",
month = "9",
day = "30",
doi = "10.1002/jctb.6220",
language = "English",
journal = "Chemical Technology and Biotechnology",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Upcycling brewer's spent grain waste into activated carbon and carbon nanotubes via two-stage activation for energy and other applications

AU - Osman Ahmed, Ahmed Ibrahim

AU - O’Connor, Edward

AU - McSpadden, Glenn

AU - Abu-Dahrieh, Jehad

AU - Farrell, Charles

AU - Muhtaseb, Ala

AU - Harrison, John

AU - Rooney, David

PY - 2019/9/30

Y1 - 2019/9/30

N2 - In this study activated carbon (AC) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesised from Brewer’s Spent Grain (BSG); a form of lignocellulosic biomass, more commonly known as barley waste. A novel approach involving two activation steps; firstly, with phosphoric acid (designated BAC-P) and then using potassium hydroxide (designated BAC-K) was proposed for the production of AC and CNTs from BSG. The AC produced showed a surface area as high as 692.3 m2.g-1 with a pore volume of 0.44 cm3.g-1. This can help aid and facilitate the circular economy by effectively up-cycling and valorising waste lignocellulosic biomass to high surface area AC and subsequently, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Consequently, MWCNTs were prepared from the produced AC by mixing it with the nitrogen-based material melamine and iron precursor, iron (III) oxalate hexahydrate, where it produced a hydrophilic multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Both AC and CNTs materials were used in heavy metal removal (HMR), where the maximum lead absorption was observed for sample BAC-K with 77% removal capacity after the first hour of testing. This result signifies that the synthesis of these up-cycled materials can have application in the areas of wastewater treatment or other AC/CNT end uses with a rapid cycle time.

AB - In this study activated carbon (AC) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesised from Brewer’s Spent Grain (BSG); a form of lignocellulosic biomass, more commonly known as barley waste. A novel approach involving two activation steps; firstly, with phosphoric acid (designated BAC-P) and then using potassium hydroxide (designated BAC-K) was proposed for the production of AC and CNTs from BSG. The AC produced showed a surface area as high as 692.3 m2.g-1 with a pore volume of 0.44 cm3.g-1. This can help aid and facilitate the circular economy by effectively up-cycling and valorising waste lignocellulosic biomass to high surface area AC and subsequently, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Consequently, MWCNTs were prepared from the produced AC by mixing it with the nitrogen-based material melamine and iron precursor, iron (III) oxalate hexahydrate, where it produced a hydrophilic multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Both AC and CNTs materials were used in heavy metal removal (HMR), where the maximum lead absorption was observed for sample BAC-K with 77% removal capacity after the first hour of testing. This result signifies that the synthesis of these up-cycled materials can have application in the areas of wastewater treatment or other AC/CNT end uses with a rapid cycle time.

KW - Brewer’s Spent Grain

KW - Biomass

KW - Activated carbon

KW - Carbon nanotube

KW - pyrolysis

KW - Activating agent

KW - Multi-wall carbon nanotubes

KW - Carbon nanoparticles

U2 - 10.1002/jctb.6220

DO - 10.1002/jctb.6220

M3 - Article

JO - Chemical Technology and Biotechnology

JF - Chemical Technology and Biotechnology

M1 - 10.1002/jctb.6220

ER -