A high intake of fruit and vegetables (FV) has been associated with reduced risk of a number of chronic diseases, including CVD. The aim of this review is to describe the potential use of biomarkers to assess FV intake. Traditional methods of assessing FV intake have limitations, and this is likely to impact on observed associations with disease outcomes and markers of disease risk. Nutritional biomarkers may offer a more objective and reliable method of assessing dietary FV intake. Some single blood biomarkers, such as plasma vitamin C and serum carotenoids, are well established as indicators of FV intake. Combining potential biomarkers of intake may more accurately predict overall FV intake within intervention studies than the use of any single biomarker. Another promising approach is metabolomic analysis of biological fluids using untargeted approaches to identify potential new biomarkers of FV intake. Using biomarkers to measure FV intake may improve the accuracy of dietary assessment.
- Journal Article